A Timeline of Women’s History in the Legal Profession

Download the reader-friendly Pdf here: A Timeline of Womens History in the Legal Profession last updated 6-20-11

 

 

A Timeline of Women’s History

in the Legal Profession

By Angela Nicole Johnson[1]

1638    Margaret Brent became the executor of the estate of Lord Calvert, governor of the Maryland Colony.  She was involved in more than 100 court cases in Maryland and Virginia[2].  Although it is known that she was the first woman to practice law in colonial America, little else is known about women practicing law until the mid-1800’s.[3]

1745    Pennsylvanian frontierswoman and poet Susanna Wright becomes a prothonotary of the colony, enhancing her stature as a legal counselor to her mostly illiterate neighbors, for whom she prepares will, deeds, indentures and other contracts.  She also served as an arbitrator in property disputes.[4]

1796    Lucy Terry Prince of Vermont, born in Africa and enslaved in the United States but freed via purchase by her husband, appears in a property dispute before the U.S. Supreme Court regarding some farmland.  Though she is represented by future governor of Vermont, Isaac Tichnor, Prince presents the oral argument herself.  She wins, and Justice Samuel Chase compliments her skill. She is best known as a poet rather than as the first woman and possibly the first African-American to argue before the Supreme Court.[5]

1821    Emma Willard establishes the Troy Female Seminary, the first state-chartered institution for the education of girls, with a broader curriculum than ever had existed before.[6]

1833    Oberlin, the first women’s college began its existence.[7]

1868    Myra Bradwell creates the “Chicago Legal News,” a widely circulated and regarded legal newspaper which published information about court opinions, laws, and court ordinances.[8]  As early as the second edition, she begins a column on “Law Relating to Women,” calling for suffrage and reporting on women attorneys even before such women sought formal admission to the bar.[9]

1868    The Chicago Legal News notes in February that Mary E. Magoon has her own law office in the town of North English, Iowa.  Although Magoon is not a member of that state’s formal bar, such admission was often not needed for practice at the county level.[10]

1868    Brooklyn born, Lemma Barkaloo is the first woman to apply for admission to Columbia University, two others immediately follow suit – giving Columbia the dubious distinction of being the first Ivy League law school to reject women.  Columbia’s George  Templeton Strong entered in his diary: “Application from three infatuated young women to the law school.  No woman shall degrade herself by practicing law in New York especially if I can save her “Women’s Rights Women’ are uncommonly loud and offensive of late. I loathe the lot.”[11]

1869    Barkaloo becomes the first woman to enter a formal legal education[12] when she is accepted to Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri and attends her first law classes in the fall.  She quit after her first year after much harassment from her male classmates.  She passed the Missouri bar exam but died soon after during a typhoid epidemic in 1870.  Eight years later the United States Biographical Dictionary said that Lemma Barkaloo had “died of over-mental exertion.”[13]

1869    After a period of “self-directed reading” and apprenticeship, Arabella (Belle A.) Mansfield is granted admission to practice law in Iowa, making her the first officially recognized woman lawyer in the United States.[14] She is just 23 years old.[15]

1869    Myra Bradwell applies to the Illinois Bar, but is rejected on grounds of her sex.[16]

1870    Ada H. Kepley, of Illinois, graduates from the Union College of Law in Chicago.  She is the first woman lawyer to graduate from a law school.[17]

1870    Esther McQuigg Morris became the first woman judge in the nation when she was appointed as the justice of the peace in South Pass City, Wyoming.  Morris had played an important role in drafting and winning passage of Wyoming’s Women’s Suffrage Bill.  Her husband, John Morris, a local saloonkeeper, came into court and created a noisy ruckus over his wife’s new job.  Esther Morris fined him and when he refused to pay, she packed him off to jail.  She stepped down after a year of service, most probably due to turmoil at home.  Not one of the many cases she handed was reversed by a higher court.[18]

1870    Carrie Burnham Kilgore, the first woman in New York State to win a degree in medicine in 1864, tried for another first when she applied to the University of Pennsylvania Law School.  Rejected, she attempted to buy individual tickets to attend lectures.  One of the law professors, E. Spencer Miller, ungrammatically told her: “I do not know what he Board of Trustees will do, but as for me, if they admit a woman I will resign for I will neither lecture to niggers nor women.”[19]

1871    Belva Ann Lockwood matriculates at the new National University Law School after being rejected during the past three years by the law schools at Georgetown University, Howard University, and Columbian College (renamed George Washington University in 1904).  Georgetown honored Lockwood in the 1970’s by placing Lockwood’s statue on prominent display in the law library.[20]

1872    Charlotte E. Ray, daughter of leaders of New York’s underground railroad,[21] becomes the first African American woman lawyer in the United States.  She had been working as a teacher at Howard since 1869 and applied to Howard’s law school under the name “C.E. Ray.” Her admission was in error but the last school was too embarrassed to expel one of its own teachers. However, she was unable to make a living working as a lawyer because she had difficulty attracting enough clients, despite being among the top students in her graduating class.

1872    Illinois passes a bill drafted by Alta M. Hulett which provides that no person can be excluded from any occupation, profession, or employment because of sex.  In light of this legislation, Alta M. Hulett may apply to sit for the bar exam in the State of Illinois (she was previously denied prior to the passage of this bill).  This legislation passes while the Bradwell v. Illinois (1872) appeal is pending in the United States Supreme Court. Bradwell, still waiting on the United States Supreme Court appeal does not reapply for inclusion to the Illinois bar.[22]

1873    After passing the bar exam (and receiving the highest score on the test) Alta Hulett was admitted to the Illinois bar on her nineteenth birthday, becoming Illinois’ first woman lawyer.[23] Hulett was not only the first woman attorney in Illinois, but also the youngest female attorney in the world.[24]

1873    Myra Bradwell appeals to the United States Supreme Court in what has been called the first sex discrimination case to be heard by the highest court in the land (Bradwell v. Illinois, 1873).[25]  Bradwell asserted her right to a license to practice law in Illinois, arguing she qualified because she was a United States Citizen.  This case asked the question, is the right to obtain a license to practice law guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to all citizens of the United States?  The answer was no.[26]  The Supreme Court holds that states may statutorily deny women the right to practice law.[27] Justice Miller argued the right to practice law did not depend on citizenship.  Justice Bradley stated it was “natural and proper for women to be excluded from the legal profession.  He cited the importance maintaining the “respective spheres of man and woman,” with women performing the duties of motherhood and wife in accordance with the “law of the Creator.”[28]

1874    Alta Hulett passed away at the age of twenty-three.  Newspapers considered this “proof” that women should stay away from the legal profession.

1875    The number of states permitting women to practice law in their courts rises to nine (District of Columbia-1872, Illinois-1873, Indiana–1875, Maine–1872, Michigan-1871, Ohio–1873, Utah–1872, and Wisconsin–1875).[29]

1877    At the urging of Livinia Goodell, a female lawyer who had sought admission to the Wisconsin Bar, the Wisconsin legislature revised a recently passed equal employment statute to make it read even more specifically: “No person shall be denied admission or license to practice as an attorney in any court of this state on account of sex.”  Two years later, a judge finally granted Goodell her license.  In 1980, only a year after her victory, Goodell died at the age of forty-one.  The Chicago Journal published news of her death and asked whether women are able to endure the hard usage and severe mental application incidental to a legal professional career.[30]

1879    Myra Bradwell and Belva Ann Lockwood’s “An Act to Relieve Certain Legal Disabilities of Women” passed the House of Representatives and the Senate (after a massive almost single handed campaign by Bradwell and Lockwood).  President Rutherford Hayes signed the “Lockwood Bill”[31] into law on February, 1879.  This act granted women lawyers access to federal courts.  One month later, Belva Ann Lockwood becomes the first woman admitted to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court.[32] Lockwood then won a $5 Million settlement in the U.S. Supreme Court for the Cherokee Indian Nation to compensate for the theft of their lands.[33]

1879    The U.S. Supreme Court is compelled to admit Belva Ann Lockwood to its bar, after rejecting her 1876 application on the grounds of “custom.”  Lockwood, who held the requisite lower court license from the District of Columbia, D.C., obtained Congressional legislation early in 1879 establishing that women who practice law must have access to even the highest court.[34]

1879    After a ten-year running battle with Myra Bradwell backing many well qualified women candidates, Bradwell was able to announce that twenty-six women had been admitted to the bar in seven states.  However, thirty states still excluded women simply based on their sex.[35]

1880    After a decade of one-by-one victories, there were only about 200 women lawyers.  The number of women doctors rose to 2,423 (and 7,000 by 1990).[36]

1882    Bessie Bradwell, daughter of Myra Bradwell, graduates from the Union College of Law (later Northwestern University) and continues to publish her mother’s newspaper until 1925.  Myra’s husband and son, also a lawyer, continued to manage the printing company.[37]

1884    Belva Ann Lockwood leads a revival of the dormant Equal Rights Party as part of her candidacy for U.S. President – Lockwood wins over 4,000 votes in six states.  Indiana unsuccessfully tries to switch its votes from Grover Cleveland to Lockwood, but is barred by a technicality.[38]

1885    Alice Rufie Jordan showed up in the registrar’s office at Yale, armed with a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Michigan as well as her Michigan license to practice law.  She paid her fee and it was returned. Jordan kept the money and still showed up for courses taught by faculty members who agreed to grade her work. Jordan pointed out an apparent oversight in Yale Law School’s course catalog, which did not explicitly state women could not enroll.[39]

1885    Eighteen states permit women to practice law in their courts. (California-1878, Connecticut-1882, Kansas-1881, Massachusetts-1882, Minnesota-1877, Nebraska-1881, North Carolina-1878, Pennsylvania-1883, and Washington-1885)[40]

1886    The Equity Club is founded at the University of Michigan by Lettie Burlingame for women law students and law alumnae, later expanding to include women attorneys from other schools.  It is the first professional organization for women lawyers, and circulates its newsletters to members nationwide.  Burlingame, a suffragist, goes into private practice and “so successful was she that she won every case entrusted to her” prior to her death from “la grippe” in 1890.[41]

1890    The Women’s Legal Education Society opens its doors in a building in Greenwich Village, offering adult education classes for a fee of five dollars a year. Women studied the rudiments of law and at the end of each year, examinations were held and women were given certificates of completion at graduation ceremonies. The curriculum began to be regarded as a pre-law curriculum.  That same year, the University of New York Law School began admitting women.  The Women’s Legal Education Society raised money for scholarships to the law school.[42]

1890    Bradwell is finally licensed in 1890 when the state supreme court, on its own motion, reconsiders her 1869 application and grants the license nunc pro tunc, backdating its effect to the original date.[43]

1892    Bradwell is granted the right to appear before the U.S. Supreme Court.[44]

1892    Feminist economist Charlotte Perkins Gilman publishes the novella The Yellow Wall-Paper, a horrifying depiction of how the medical and legal systems worked together to institutionalize or otherwise isolate ambitious women simply by spousal fiat.  Such women were often treated for “mental exhaustion” by being deprived of any “unwomanly” intellectual stimulation whatsoever, including basic writing materials or the right to hear news or speak to friends.[45]

1893    The queen Isabella Association is formed by women to promote women’s accomplishments at the World’s Fair in Chicago.  They select their name to reflect that Europeans would not have settled American without Isabella’s sponsorship of Columbus.  As part of the Fair, its legal committee organizes the first nationwide meeting of women lawyers.[46]

1893    Belva Lockwood, grudgingly admitted to the Supreme Court bar in 1879, is denied the right to join the state bar of Virginia.  The U.S. Supreme Court, relying on the 1873 Bradwell decision, reaffirms that state bars may discriminate on the basis of sex.[47]

1894    Bradwell, mortally ill with cancer, dies in 1894.[48]

1895    Four out of five law schools were still refusing to allow women to study, no matter what their qualifications.[49]

1895    Twenty-nine states now allow women to practice law in their courts. (Colorado-1891, Hawaii-1888, Idaho-1895, Montana-1890, Nevada-1893, New Hampshire-1890, New Jersey-1895, New York-1886, Oregon-1886, South Dakota-1893, and Virginia-1894).[50]

1896    Ellen Spencer Mussey and Emma Gillett create the first women’s school of law, Washington College of Law (now American University).  Mussey was named the only women dean of a law school in the world.  In the spring of 1899, six women received their law degrees.[51]

1897    Lutie A. Lytle, an African-American attorney, becomes the first woman law professor in the nation when she joins the faculty of the Central Tennessee College of Law (now Walden University – a historically black college).[52]

1899    The first of its kind, the Women Lawyer’s Club[53] (which became known as the National Association of Women Lawyers) is founded.[54]

1900    Only five women had been appointed or elected to even minor judicial roles.[55]

1905    Women are admitted to thirty-seven state bars. (Arizona-1903, Florida-1898, Louisiana-1898, Maryland-1902, North Dakota-1905, Oklahoma-1898, West Virginia-1896, and Wyoming-1899).[56]

1908    Portia Law School, the only all-women’s law school in the world, opened in Boston.[57]

1910    Lyda Burton Conley became the first Native American woman lawyer in the United States. She never dreamed of becoming a lawyer but did so by self educating herself in order to protect her tribe’s cemetery burial land (Huron Park Indian Cemetery) from being sold. Though she lost her case and the U.S. Supreme Court denied rehearing, her efforts drew so much support and attention that in 1912 the House of Representatives Indian Affairs committee banned desecration of the cemetery.[58]

1910    With the population exploding, there were only 559 women lawyers, less than 1 percent of the vastly expanded legal profession.[59]

1915    Women are admitted to forty-three state bars. (Alabama-1907, Kentucky-1912, Mississippi-1914, Tennessee-1907, Texas-1910, and Vermont-1914)[60]

1918    Only one black woman lawyer, Gertrude E. Rush, was known to exist.[61]

1918    Though previously excluded, women are finally allowed membership in the American Bar Association.[62] (It is important to note that women had previously been allowed membership in local and state bar associations prior to 1918).

1919    Barbara Armstrong becomes the first woman appointed to a tenure-track position at an accredited law school when she joins the staff of the University of California at Berkeley.[63]

1919    Matilda Fenberg became the first woman law student at Yale.[64]

1919    Frances Allen (who would later be the first woman to hold an Article III Appellate Judgeship)became the first woman to work as an assistant prosecutor.[65]

1920    Just fifteen women had been appointed or elected to even minor judicial roles.[66]

1920    Women gain the right to vote yet the newly enfranchised “second sex” were barred from twenty-seven law schools, including Columbia and the most resistant of all, Harvard.[67]

1920    In response to the enactment of the 19th Amendment, Florence Ellinwood Allen decides to run for judge of the Court of Common Pleas in Cleveland.  Beating to nine male opponents for the job and earning more votes than the three male judges who were also elected, Allen wins the judgeship by the largest popular vote ever for the bench in that country.  She is the first female to win a popular election for judge. Six years later she is reelected with a majority 350,000 votes.[68]

1922    Florence Ellinwood Allen is popularly elected to the Ohio Supreme Court.[69] She is the first woman elected to any state’s Supreme Court.[70]

1922    24 year old Pauline Floyd becomes the youngest lawyer ever admitted to practice before the United States Court.[71]

1923    Six additional states opened its courts to women practitioners: Arkansas-1918, Delaware-1923, Georgia-1916, New Mexico-1917, Rhode Island-1920, and South Carolina-1918.  The final state to permit women admission to it’s Bar was Alaska, which did not do so until 1950.[72]

1925    For a brief time, three women made up the Texas State Supreme Court.  One of the parties in a famous land dispute, Johnson v. Darr, was the popular organization, “Woodmen of the World.”  Three judges had to disqualify themselves because they belonged to the organization and the governor of Texas appointed three women to replace them.  However, after the case ended, not a single woman was appointed to a judgeship in Texas until 1934.[73]

1928    Columbia Law School opened its doors to women for the first time.[74]

1928    Genevieve Rose Cline of Ohio becomes the first woman to be a federal judge when she is appointed to the U.S. Customs Court, where she goes on to serve for 25 years.[75]

1934    President Roosevelt appoints Florence Ellinwood Allen to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, making her the first woman on the federal appellate bench.[76] She served for a quarter of a century, becoming by virtue of seniority the Circuit’s Chief Judge in her very last year on the court (during the 1958-1959 term).[77]

1944    Justice William O. Douglas hired Lucille Lomen, making her the first female to clerk for a U.S. Supreme Court justice.[78] It would be another 22 years before a second female clerk was hired.

1949    Burnita Shelton Matthews becomes the first woman on the federal trial bench when President Harry S. Truman appoints her as district court judge[79]for the U.S. District of Columbia; the Senate confirms her nomination in April 1950.[80]

1950    Alaska becomes the final state to allow women to be admitted to its State Bar.[81]

1950    Harvard Law School opens its doors to women for the first time.[82]

1969    The first Women and the Law courses in the country are taught at NYU Law School in the fall and Yale the following spring.  Georgetown Law’s first Women and the Law class is taught by Barbara Allen Babcock in 1970.  George Washington University’s National Law Center initiates its Women and the Law class in the Fall of 1970, simultaneous with Georgetown, taught by Gladys Kessler and Susan Deller Ross.  In 1971, Eleanor Holmes Norton teaches the course at NYU, and Ann E. Freedman joins Babcock in teaching the course at Georgetown.  In 1972, Judy Lyons Wolf and Nancy Stanley teach it at George Washington University, and in 1973, Marna Tucker and Brooksley Born do so at Georgetown.[83]

1970    The Women’s Rights Law Reporter, a journal of legal scholarship published by an independent student group at Rutgers School of Law – Newark is founded by Ruth Bader Ginsburg.  The journal is the first legal periodical in the United States to focus exclusively on the field of women’s rights law.[84] Now as the oldest legal periodical, it focuses on legislative developments, significant federal and state court cases, judicial doctrines, litigation strategies, the lives and careers of prominent women jurists, the legal profession, and other areas of law or public policy relating to women’s rights.

1971    The Women’s Legal Defense Fund is founded to advance women’s rights, initially litigating through a network of volunteer lawyers.  With a grant from the Junior League of Washington to fund paid staff, Judith L. Lichtman becomes the first executive director in 1974.[85]

1972    The Women’s Rights Project of the Center for Law and Social Policy is established under the direction of Marcia D. Greenberger. Its mission is to provide legal representation on women’s issues in the courts, in Congress, and through public education.[86]

1972    Title IX of the Higher Education Act, which prohibits discrimination based on sex in the enrollment of students and hiring of faculty.  Law schools feared the denial of federal financial assistance if they continued to discriminate and law schools began to admit more women to their classes.[87]

1974    Sex-Based Discrimination, coauthored by Kenneth M. Davidson, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and Herma Hill Kaye, is published as the first law school casebook addressing the topic.[88]

1974    Women’s representation among American law students is a low 20%.[89]

1975    Sex Discrimination and the Law, coauthored by Barbara Allen Babcock, Ann E. Freedman, Eleanor Holmes Norton, and Susan Deller Ross, is published, providing a second casebook on the subject.  The book evolved from materials the authors used for the first Women and the Law classes at Georgetown, George Washington University, and Yale.[90]

1977    Only eight women have served in the federal judiciary at the District or Circuit Court Level[91]

1978    Wendy Webster Williams authors a comprehensive 1978 Supplement to Sex Discrimination and the Law textbook to augment and update the earlier work.[92]

1979    Women now serve at some level of the judicial system in all 50 states.[93]

1980    After lobbying by women students for a clinic focused on women’s rights, the Georgetown University Law Center begins its Employment Discrimination Clinic. The clinic’s initial caseload is comprised of federal agency employment discrimination hearings.  In 1982, it is renamed the Sex Discrimination Clinic.[94]

1981    Sandra Day O’Connor is appointed by President Reagan to the United States Supreme Court, making her the first woman justice to serve on the highest court of the land.[95]

1981    The Women’s Rights Project of the Center for Law and Social Policy becomes the National Women’s Law Center.[96] The center’s mission is to protect and advance the progress of women and girls. Among many issues, the Center is dedicated to ensuring individuals nominated to lifetime positions on the federal bench support the rights and principles that are fundamental to women’s progress[97]

1984    The Washington College of Law (now known as American University Washington College of Law) launches the Women and the Law Program which trains its students to use their law degrees to defend women’s rights.  It is the only program of its kind in the world.[98]

1985    Women comprise 40% of American law students.[99]

1987    The ABA created the Commission on Women in the Profession chaired by Hillary Rodham Clinton to address gender discrimination throughout the legal profession.[100]

1989    Judith Areen becomes Dean of the Georgetown Law Center, the first female Dean in its history and one of only a handful of women law school deans in the nation.[101]

1993    A woman attorney moves into the White House – as First Lady, when Hillary Rodham Clinton moves to Washington at President Bill Clinton’s Inauguration.[102]

1993    Janet Reno becomes the first woman U.S. Attorney General.[103]

1993    Ruth Bader Ginsburg, nominated by President Bill Clinton, becomes the second woman appointed to the Supreme Court.[104]

1993    The Georgetown Law Center opens its day care center 23 years after its women law students first requested this much needed facility for children of staff and students.[105]

1994    Just 23% of all lawyers in the United States are women (12.9% of partners in major law firms are women; 4% of general counsels in Fortune 500 companies are women).  45% of law students are women.  5.9% of tenured positions at law schools are held by women.  13% of U.S. Court of Appeals Judges are Women; 12% of U.S. District Court judges are women.[106]

1995    The American Bar Association, after 117 years, inaugurates its first woman president, Roberta Cooper Ramo.[107]

1998    The Women’s Legal Defense Fund becomes the National Partnership for Women & Families, reflecting a new priority on consumer education, quality health care, and workplace issues affecting women.[108]

1998    The Center for Legal Advocacy for Women’s Rights is established at Georgetown University Law Center.  The components are a domestic violence clinic, a clinic on international women’s human rights, the domestic Women’s Law and Public Policy Fellowship Program and the international Leadership and Advocacy for Women in Africa Program.[109]

1999    Women comprise just 32% of all law school faculty.[110]

2000    Full-time women lawyers earn 73% of what their male counterparts earn.[111]

2000    13% of female attorneys (and 8% of male attorneys) work in federal, state and local government positions, as well as in Legal Aid and the public defender’s office.[112]

2001    For the first time in the history of the legal profession, American law schools admitted a J.D. class that was roughly equally divided between men and women (52 and 48% respectively).[113]

2001    Just 22% of federal district and appellate judgeships were filled by women (130 of 606 United States District Court positions and 36 of 154 United States Courts of Appeals’ positions).[114]

2002    29.1% of all lawyers in the United States are women (16.3% of partners in major law firms are women; 15% of general counsels in Fortune 500 companies are women). 50% of law students are women.  25.1% of tenured positions at law schools are held by women. 17.4% of U.S. Court of Appeals Judges are Women; 16.2% of U.S. District Court judges are women.[115]

2003    Full-time women lawyers earn 76% of what their male colleagues earn.[116]

2005    Harriet Miers becomes the first woman to hold the office of White House Counsel.  Miers is no stranger to firsts; she was the first female president of the Dallas Bar Association and of the Texas Bar Association.[117]

2006    Columbia Law School’s Sexuality & Gender Law Clinic is the first law school clinic anywhere in the U.S. directed by a full-time law school faculty member and dedicated to legal and public policy issues related to gender and sexuality.[118]

2009    President Obama appoints Elena Kagan to serve as the first female Solicitor General of the U.S.[119]

2009    Justice Sonia Sotomayor is nominated in May by President Obama to the United States Supreme Court and confirmed by the Senate in August.[120] She is the first Latina to serve on the highest court of the land and joins Ruth Bader Ginsburg in again having a ratio of 2 women serving.[121]

2010    Justice Elena Kagan is nominated in May by President Obama to the United States Supreme Court[122] and confirmed by the Senate in August.[123]  Her appointment to the bench marks the first time in U.S. History that three women serve on the United States Supreme Court at the same time.

2011    Christine Luchok Fallon becomes the 16th and the first woman to serve as the Reporter of Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States.[124]


[1] This timeline evolved from my independent study in women in the legal profession at Indiana University South Bend during the Spring 2011 semester and is being continuously updated.  While I hope this timeline will be of use to others, I ask that proper credit be given for my time spent in compiling this information. If you have any questions on how to cite this piece, please do not hesitate to contact me.  Additionally, I would appreciate hearing from you on how I can improve and add to this timeline. I may be contacted at aj70@umail.iu.edu.

[2] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[3] Ehrlich Martin, Susan and Nancy C. Jurik. Doing Justice, Doing Gender. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc., 2007. P. 108-109.

[4] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[5] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[6] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[7] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[8] “Myra Colby Bradwell.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 17 Dec. 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/76865/Myra-Colby-Bradwell>.

[9] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[10] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[11] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[12] Ehrlich Martin, Susan and Nancy C. Jurik. Doing Justice, Doing Gender. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc., 2007. P. 109.

[13] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[14] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996; A Shifting Gender Divide: The Impact of Gender on Education at Columbia Law School in the New Millennium; and http://www.infoplease.com/spot/womensfirsts1.html.

[15] Stanford Law. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/papers/sleeth.pdf. (Accessed March 14, 2011).

[16] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[18] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[19] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[20] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[21] Ehrlich Martin, Susan and Nancy C. Jurik. Doing Justice, Doing Gender. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc., 2007. P. 109.

[22] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[23] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[24] “Legal Pioneers: Four of Illinois First Woman Lawyers.”  Meg Gorecki.  Illinois Bar Journal. October 1990.

[25] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[26] Bradwell v. Illinois (1873) 83 U.S. 130.

[27] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[28] Bradwell v. Illinois (1873) 83 U.S. 130.

[29] A Shifting Gender Divide: The Impact of Gender on Education at Columbia Law School in the New Millennium.

[30] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[31] “A Shifting Gender Divide: The Impact of gender on Education at Columbia Law School in the New Millennium.”

[32] “Belva Ann Lockwood.” Infoplease.
© 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease.
17 Dec. 2010 <http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0878411.html&gt;.

[33] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[34] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[35] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[36] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[37] American National Biography Online. Myra Bradwell. http://www.anb.org/articles/11/11-00095.html (Accessed March 14, 2011).

[38] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[39] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[40] A Shifting Gender Divide: The Impact of Gender on Education at Columbia Law School in the New Millennium.

[41] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[42] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[43] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[44] American National Biography Online. Myra Bradwell. http://www.anb.org/articles/11/11-00095.html (Accessed March 14, 2011).

[45] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[46] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[47] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[48] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[49] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[50] A Shifting Gender Divide: The Impact of Gender on Education at Columbia Law School in the New Millennium.

[51] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[52] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[53] Doing Justice, Doing Gender, p. 153.

[55] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[56] A Shifting Gender Divide: The Impact of Gender on Education at Columbia Law School in the New Millennium.

[57] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[58] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[59] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[60] A Shifting Gender Divide: The Impact of Gender on Education at Columbia Law School in the New Millennium.

[61] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[62] Ehrlich Martin, Susan and Nancy C. Jurik. Doing Justice, Doing Gender. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc., 2007. P. 109.

[63] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[65] Ginsburg, Ruth Bader and Brill, Laura W. Women in the Federal Judiciary: Three Way Pavers and the Exhilarating Change President Carter Wrought. Fordham Law Review, November 1995.

[66] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[67] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[68] Florence Ellinwood Allen: Why the First Lady of the Law Chose Deborah Over Portia. http://www.law.stanford.edu/library/womenslegalhistory/papers/AllenFE-Liou07.pdf

[69] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[70] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[71] Washington College of Law “Interesting Facts.” http://www.wcl.american.edu/history/facts.cfm. Accessed April 22, 2011.

[72] A Shifting Gender Divide: The Impact of Gender on Education at Columbia Law School in the New Millennium.

[73] Garza, Hedda. Barred from the Bar: A History of Women and the Legal Profession. New York: Franklin Watts, 1996.

[74] Ehrlich Martin, Susan and Nancy C. Jurik. Doing Justice, Doing Gender. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc., 2007. P. 110

[75] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[76] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[77] Ginsburg, Ruth Bader and Brill, Laura W. Women in the Federal Judiciary: Three Way Pavers and the Exhilarating Change President Carter Wrought. Fordham Law Review, November 1995.

[78] Sarver, Tammy A., Erin B. Kaheny, and John J. Szmer. “The Attorney Gender Gap in U.S. Supreme Court Litigation.” Judicature 91, no. 5 (March-April 2008): 238-20.

[79] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[80] Federal Judicial Center. History of the Federal Judiciary/Biographical Directory of Federal Judges: Burnita Shelton Matthews. http://www.fjc.gov/servlet/nGetInfo?jid=1506&cid=999&ctype=na&instate=na. (Accessed March 14, 2011).

[81] A Shifting Gender Divide: The Impact of Gender on Education at Columbia Law School in the New Millennium.

[82] Ehrlich Martin, Susan and Nancy C. Jurik. Doing Justice, Doing Gender. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc., 2007. P. 110.

[83] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[84] Rutgers Law School.  Women’s Rights Law Reporter. http://pegasus.rutgers.edu/~wrlr/index.html. (Accessed March 14, 2011).

[85] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[86] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[87] Ehrlich Martin, Susan and Nancy C. Jurik. Doing Justice, Doing Gender. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc., 2007. P. 110.

[88] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[89] Bashi, Sari and Maryana Iskander. “Why Legal Education is Failing Women.” Yale Journal of Law and Feminism (2006): 389-449.

[90] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[91] Ehrlich Martin, Susan and Nancy C. Jurik. Doing Justice, Doing Gender. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc., 2007. P. 111.

[92] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[93] Ehrlich Martin, Susan and Nancy C. Jurik. Doing Justice, Doing Gender. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc., 2007. P. 111.

[94] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[95] “Sandra Day O’Connor.” The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia.
© 1994, 2000-2006, on Infoplease.
© 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease.
17 Dec. 2010 <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0836351.html&gt;.

[96] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[97] National Women’s Law Center. Judges and the Courts – Judicial Nominations. http://www.nwlc.org/our-issues/judges-%2526-the-courts/judicial-nominations. (Accessed March 14, 2011).

[98] Washington College of Law. Rich in History. http://www.wcl.american.edu/history/timeline.cfm (Accessed March 14, 2011).

[99] Bashi, Sari and Maryana Iskander. “Why Legal Education is Failing Women.” Yale Journal of Law and Feminism (2006): 389-449.

[100] Ehrlich Martin, Susan and Nancy C. Jurik. Doing Justice, Doing Gender. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc., 2007. P. 118.

[101] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[102] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[103] “Janet Reno.” The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia.
© 1994, 2000-2006, on Infoplease.
© 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease.
17 Dec. 2010 <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0841536.html&gt;.

[104] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[105] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[106] “Charting our Progress: The Status of Women in the Profession Today.” American Bar Association. The Commission on Women in the Profession 2006 Report.

[107] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[108] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[109] Cunnea, Professor. “A Timeline of Women’s Legal History in the United States.” 1998. http://wlh-static.law.stanford.edu/articles/cunnea-timeline.pdf (accessed March 7, 2011).

[110] A Shifting Gender Divide: The Impact of Gender on Education at Columbia Law School in the New Millennium.

[111] “Charting our Progress: The Status of Women in the Profession Today.” American Bar Association. The Commission on Women in the Profession 2006 Report.

[112] A Shifting Gender Divide: The Impact of Gender on Education at Columbia Law School in the New Millennium.

[113] Bashi, Sari and Maryana Iskander. “Why Legal Education is Failing Women.” Yale Journal of Law and Feminism (2006): 389-449. And http://www.abanet.org/women/glance.pdf.

[114] A Shifting Gender Divide: The Impact of Gender on Education at Columbia Law School in the New Millennium.

[115] “Charting our Progress: The Status of Women in the Profession Today.” American Bar Association. The Commission on Women in the Profession 2006 Report.

[116] “Charting our Progress: The Status of Women in the Profession Today.” American Bar Association. The Commission on Women in the Profession 2006 Report.

[117] “Who is Harriet Miers?” ABC News. October 7, 2005 http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/SupremeCourt/story?id=1170572&page=1 (accessed June 20, 2011).

[118] Columbia Law School.  Sexuality and Gender Law Clinic. http://www.law.columbia.edu/center_program/gendersexuality/clinic. (Accessed March 14, 2011).

[119] NBC News. Obama names first woman solicitor general. January 5, 2009. http://firstread.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2009/01/05/4434106-obama-names-first-woman-solicitor-gen. (Accessed March 14, 2011).

[120] CNN.com. Senate Confirms Sonia Sotomayor for Supreme Court. August 6, 2009. http://articles.cnn.com/2009-08-06/politics/sonia.sotomayor_1_judge-sotomayor-hispanic-supreme-court-third-female-justice?_s=PM:POLITICS. (Accessed March 14, 2011).

[121] The White House Office of the Press Secretary. Remarks by the President in Nominating Judge Sonia Sotomayor to the United States Supreme Court. May 26, 2009. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-the-President-in-Nominating-Judge-Sonia-Sotomayor-to-the-United-States-Supreme-Court/ (Accessed March 14, 2011).

[122] MSNBC. Obama Picks Kagan for Supreme Court. May 10, 2010. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/36967616/ns/politics-supreme_court/. (Accessed March 14, 2011).

[123] Foxnews.com. Obama Hails Elena Kagan’s Confirmation as Newest Supreme Court Justice. August 5, 2010. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/08/05/senate-confirms-elena-kagan-newest-supreme-court-justice/ (Accessed March 14, 2011).

[124] U.S. Supreme Court Press Release, March 7, 2011. http://www.supremecourt.gov/publicinfo/press/viewpressreleases.aspx?FileName=pr_03-07-11.html. Accessed April 20, 2011.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: